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Henry VIII, King of England

Henry VIII, King of England[1]

Male 1491 - 1546

Personal Information    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

  • Born  28 Jun 1491  London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Gender  Male 
    Died  20 Jan 1546  London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Person ID  I034422  Norway Tree - all data
    Last Modified  26 Oct 2016 | Edit 

    Father  Henry VII, King of England,   b. 28 Jan 1456, Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Apr 1509, Richmond, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Relationship  Birth 
    Mother  Elizabeth Plantagenet of York,   b. 1466,   d. 1503 
    Relationship  Birth 
    Married  1486 
    Family ID  F015648  Group Sheet

    Family 1  Elizabeth Blount,   b. 1502,   d. 1539 
    Children 
     1. Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond & Somers,   b. Jun 1519,   d. 1536
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015647  Group Sheet

    Family 2  Catherine of Aragón,   b. 16 Dec 1485, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1536 
    Married  11 Jun 1509  [3
    Children 
     1. NN (miscarriage),   b. 31 Jan 1509
     2. Henry, Prince Of Wales,   b. 1 Jan 1511,   d. 22 Feb 1511
     3. NN,   b. Oct 1513,   d. Oct 1513
     4. Henry, Duke of Cornwall,   b. Nov 1514,   d. Nov 1514
     5. NN,   b. 1518,   d. 1518
     6. Mary I, Queen of England,   b. 18 Feb 1515, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Nov 1558, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015649  Group Sheet

    Family 3  Anne Boleyn,   b. 1507,   d. 19 May 1536 
    Married  25 Jan 1532  [3
    Children 
     1. NN,   b. Jul 1534,   d. Jul 1534
     2. NN,   b. 1536,   d. 1536
     3. Elizabeth I, Queen of England,   b. 7 Sep 1533, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Mar 1602, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015650  Group Sheet

    Family 4  Jane Seymour,   b. 1509, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Oct 1537 
    Married  1536  [3
    Children 
     1. Edward VI,   b. 12 Oct 1537, Hampton Court Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Jul 1553, Greenwich, England Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015651  Group Sheet

    Family 5  Anne of Cleves,   b. 22 Sep 1515, Düsseldorf, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1557 
    Married  1540  [3
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015652  Group Sheet

    Family 6  Catherine Howard,   b. 1525,   d. 13 Feb 1541, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015653  Group Sheet

    Family 7  Catherine Parr,   b. 1512,   d. 1548 
    Last Modified  Edit 
    Family ID  F015654  Group Sheet

  • Notes 
    • [Adam.ged]

      He was the founder of the Church of England. He profoundl y influenced the character of the English monarchy. On the death of his fath er in 1509, succeeded to the throne. At the beginning of his reign, He nry's good looks and hearty personality, his fondness for sport and th e hunt, andhis military prowess endeared him to his subjects. A monarch o f the period known as the Renaissance, he entertained numerous scholar s and artists, including the German painter Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted several famous portraits of the king and members of his court.

      A Question of Divorce

      In 1511 Henry joined in the Holy League against France, an d in 1513 heled the English forces through a victorious campaign in norther n France. Deserted by his allies, Henry arranged a marriage in 1514 between his sister Mary (1496-1533) and Louis XII of France, with who m he formed an alliance. Louis's successor, Francis I, met Henry at a magnificently staged meeting on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, b ut no significant political decisions resulted from this meeting . In 1525 riots broke out in England in protest against an attempt by Henr y to levy taxes for military purposes, and he withdrew from major military activity in Europe.

      In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce his wife, o n the grounds that the papal dispensation making the marriage possible was invalid. The chief reason for the divorce was that Catherine had failed to produce a male heir. Her only surviving child was Mary, later Mary I of England. In addition, Henry was in love with Anne Boleyn, a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting of the queen. Several obstacles, however, stood in theway of the divorce. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Catherine's nephew, strongly opposed the divorce, and Pope Clement VII, whom Charles had made a prisoner, could not invalidate the marriage without displeasing his captor. In 1528 the pope was persuaded to appoint the English cardinaland statesman Thomas Wolsey and Lorenzo Campeggio (1474-1539) , apapallegate, to try the case in an English legatine court. In 1529, the pope summoned
      the case to Rome. When the prospect of securing a papal annulment seemed hopeless, Henry dismissed Wolsey and appointed Sir Thomas More. The latter, however, was reluctant to support the divorce.

      The Break with the Papacy

      Henry now proceeded to dissolve one by one the ties to th e papacy. With the aid of parliamentary legislation, he first secured cont rol of the clergy, compelling that group in 1532 to acknowledge him a s head of the English church. In the following year Henry secretly marrie d Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen after Henry's obedient archbishop o f Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declared the marriage with Catherine void a nd that with Anne valid. An act of succession affirmed the declaration o f the archbishop and established Anne's progeny as heirs to the throne.

      Although Henry was immediately excommunicated, he repudiated papal jurisdiction in 1534 and made himself the supreme ecclesias ticalauthority in England. The English people were required to affirm unde r oath Henry's supremacy and the act of succession. Sir Thomas More and th e English cardinal John Fisher were executed for refusing to accept t he religious supremacy of the English monarch. Henry dissolved the monas ticcommunities and gave much of their property to the nobles in exchange f or their support.

      In 1536, after charging Anne Boleyn with incest and adulter y, Henry had her executed. A few days after Anne's death, Henry marrie d Jane Seymour, who died in 1537 after bearing Henry's only legitimate son , Edward, later Edward VI. A marriage was arranged in 1540 with Anne of Cle ves (1515-57) in order to form a tie between England and the Protestant p rinces of Germany. Because Anne was unattractive and because Henry fo und the political alliance no longer to his advantage, he divorce d her after several months and married Catherine Howard in the same yea r. She was executed summarily in 1542 for having been unchaste prior t o marriage and having committed adultery. In the following year Henry marr ied his sixth wife, Catherine Parr, who survived him.

      Between 1542 and 1546 Henry was involved in war with Scotla nd and France. His troops defeated the Scots at Solway Moss in 1542. The y captured Boulogne-sur-Mer from the French in 1544, and when peace wa s made in 1546 Henry received an indemnity from France. He died in Londo n on January 28, 1547.

      Effects of Henry's Reign

      Although he altered the church, Henry did not wish to intro duceProtestant doctrine. Those who refused to accept Church of England tea chings as well as those who rejected Henry's authority over the church wer e executed.The licensing of an English translation of the Bible, the issua nce of Cranmer's litany, and the translation into English of certa in parts ofthe traditional service were the only important religious chang es made during Henry's reign. In terms of the monarchy, he intensified th e authoritarian elements characteristic of the Tudor dynasty to which he be longed. The great strength of government developed by Henry was used po werfully inthe reign of Elizabeth I, his daughter by Anne Boleyn.

  • Sources 
    1. [S000150] Johnson-2002, Johnson, David Leigh, (worldconnect.rootsweb.com: 2002).

    2. [S000150] Johnson-2002, Johnson, David Leigh, (worldconnect.rootsweb.com: 2002).
      Adam.ged. 53. "Date of Import: Jul 19, 2002"

    3. [S000150] Johnson-2002, Johnson, David Leigh, (worldconnect.rootsweb.com: 2002).
      Adam.ged. 680. "Date of Import: Jul 19, 2002"